Once considered a p Water retting is an accelerated method and produces more uniform and high-quality fibre. U.S. Pat. As shown in Table 2, the fastest retting was obtained withP. These can, however, be However, there is an understandable environmental concern with the use of these chemicals. In this study, the comparison of field retting of hemp fibres harvested at different growth stages (beginning and end of flowering, seed maturity) was studied. Dew Retting. This is accomplished by the retting process, which occurs when microbial constituents breakdown the heteropolysaccharides releasing the fiber. In this study, the comparison of field retting of hemp fibres harvested at different growth stages (beginning and end of flowering, seed maturity) was studied. This process is known as retting. 1,133,590 discloses a method and apparatus for retting fibrous materials. During this period degradation process occurs in the presence of certain bacteria, and the fibres are separated easily, they are then washed and dried. In order to crush the decomposed stalks, they are sent through fluted rollers which break up the stem and separate the exterior fibers from the bast that will be used to make linen. bacteria [pl. Dew or field retting by fungi mainly is most commonly applied process using this method. The research aims to bridge the gap between the primitive process of retting and current techniques in molecular and microbiology. There are also chemical retting methods; these are faster, but are typically more harmful to the environment and to the fibers themselves. 13 0 obj A) Actinomycetes B) Clostridium C) Corynebacterium D) Mycoplasma E) Rhizobium. It has also been reported that, addition of highly efficient pectinolytic bacterial inoculum to the retting water reduced the retting time appreciably [7]. retting process. The most important types of bacteria involved in retting process are spore forming bacilli, penicillium sp. Once considered a p The role played by protozoa in the process of retting is quite difficult to assess although it has been possible to show that they possess pectolytic enzymes. Retting (The process whereby naturally occurring bacteria and fungi, or chemicals, break down the pectins that bind the hemp fibers to be released. In water retting, the stacks of cut plants are immersed in water (rivers, ponds or … The short fibre or tow thus obtained is frequently used in paper manufacture, and the shives may serve as fuel to heat the retting water or may be made into wallboard and to make rope.[1]. The process is called fermentation. �O�҂��4\ⓘ�]Fy H2�ږV�[ In this work, we recorded for the first time the retting activity of a strain of AuAromobacter parvulus. Prions. On freezing of casein of milk protein it is fermented by bacteria with the result that foamy and soft substance, different in taste is formed. The research aims to bridge the gap between the primitive process of retting and current techniques in molecular and microbiology. These can, however, be When conditions are right, which for most bacterial species means that the temperature is warm and plenty of moisture is available, bacteria can divide once every 20 minutes. <> Bacteria causing soft rot of potato were found to occur consistently in retting liquor and to increase considerably in numbers during the course of a ret. <> Bacteria bring about decay of plant and animal bodies into simpler materials like water, carbon dioxide, nitrates, sulphates, phosphates, etc., which may again be used by the green plants. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. application/pdf endobj Jute is one of the most versatile bast fibers obtained through the process of retting, which is a result of decomposition of stalks by the indigenous microflora. Question 2. Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Only these two organisms hydrolysed starch. Retting did not occur unless either the Bacillus sp. Debsharma (1946) reported that B. subtilis retted jute. endobj 1) Meaning of retting = Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Improperly folded proteins. The dew retting process is weather dependent and time-consuming, so it is usually replaced by other methods. One can choose land retting or water retting. After the first three weeks have passed, pick one stem with both hands and gently break it. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/XObject<>>>/Type/Page>> It is, in fact, the first step in processing but, in contrast to almost every other crop, this processing step is carried out in the field by the pra­ ducer. In the first six to eight hours, called the leaching period, much of the dirt and colouring matter is removed by the water, which is usually changed to assure clean fibre. important economic considerations of the process, the cultural and physiological characteristics of the strain of B. polymyxafound capable of retting jute havebeen described in detail. Retting process is followedby chemical extraction of fibre. Placing bacterial cultures on a plate of agar will allow colonies to grow. was present. This may bring economic benefit to the farmers to the tune of ` 500-600 per quintal of jute fibre yield. In this process bacteria Bacillus megaterium bring about further changes and affect the flavour of the leaf, which enhances its value in the market. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Bring the fibre indoors to dry. Bacteria causing soft rot of potato were found to occur consistently in retting liquor and to increase considerably in numbers during the course of a ret. Binary fission is a very rapid process. aeruginosa. Thisfact mayhave economic importance, and a process performed with this bacterium is currently under study in ourlaboratory. It is a fermentation process which could be compared to the process of decay that happens in nature. Bacteria were isolated from a coconut husk retting ground, a mangrove swamp, a free flowing backwater system and seasonal and perennial aquaculture ponds. A reproductive process that involves only one parent and products offspring that are identical to the parent. Water retting is an accelerated method and produces more uniform and high-quality fibre. ... Fibre retting : By this process fibres of jute, ... Retting … The goal of retting is to bring about decomposition of the pectin . The harvested plant stalks are spread evenly in grassy fields, where the combined action of bacteria, sun, air, and dew produces fermentation, dissolving much of the stem material surrounding the fibre bundles. uuid:28ee45e4-1dd2-11b2-0a00-aa0000000000 The process is easy but the trick is to know when the fibres are retted. Basic methods include dew retting and water retting. After the hemp is cut, it is then laid flat on the ground, in rows allowing air flow around each stalk. which could bring about retting within a short period [4,5,6]. Retting did not occur unless either the Bacillus sp. �I�frFTJcQ���%�n*nBq�{ �p�� The next step in preparing the flax was retting. This allows bacterial populations to increase exponentially, since each division leads to a doubling in the number of bacteria present. Common techniques consist of soaking in water, or laying on the ground and letting dew do the ‘retting’) Alternatively, retting can be accomplished with the additions of chemicals, such as alkali (e.g., NaOH) or oxalic acid. These bundles are kept in side pond or canal 15 days. 2 ) The process of retting = Water Retting = In this process we make small bundles of plants. Please update your bookmarks accordingly. Photosynthesis, chemosynthesis and symbiosis 1. Through which process are bacteria able to exchange genetic material? Lactic acid bacteria bring together droplets of casein a protein found in milk and help in the formation of curd. Lactic acid bacteria bring together droplets of casein a protein found in milk and help in the formation of curd. The night will bring in moisture and then the day will bring warmth and light, promoting bacterial growth. of bacterium], microscopic unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Retrieved June 03, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Learn how and when to remove this template message, Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, Timeline of clothing and textiles technology, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/500159/retting, Video footage of the Low House retting pond, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Retting&oldid=989526220, Articles needing additional references from November 2011, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 November 2020, at 14:12. The water, penetrating to the central stalk portion, swells the inner cells, bursting the outermost layer, thus increasing absorption of both moisture and decay-producing bacteria. ��5~�����FE����šò0=���]�����|8���l}I)cX'h1Żo��*����� ���h����zUQ`b%ʍ�Hʃ���^��z��`��dID�n1j��_��?��4tw���. On freezing of casein of milk protein it is fermented by bacteria with the result that foamy and soft substance, different in taste is formed. We have moved all content for this concept to for better organization. Bacteria bring about decay of plant and animal bodies into simpler materials like water, carbon dioxide, nitrates, sulphates, phosphates, etc., which may again be used by the green plants. Basic methods include dew retting and water retting. [19 0 R] This process is called curing and is followed by ripening. Linen thread is made from these fibres example Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Binary fission is the method by which bacteria. 2. the retting of hemp i. field retting of hemp in iowa by w. h. fuller, a. g. norman and c. p. wilsie agricultural experiment station iowa state college of agriculture and mechanic arts soils subsection f arm crops subsection agronomy section ames, iowa The enzymes which are produced by the ~_ 178 bacteria, are able to act best at a pH of 6.8 (Zahid,1973 ). If you intend on using your hemp biomass for fiber, retting can help make the process more effective. The next step is bleaching. 5 After the retting process, the flax plants are squeezed and allowed to dry out before they undergo the process called breaking. Optimum retting temperature of 350C -400C was observed. Retting uses micro-organisms and moisture to break down the stalk separating the individual fibres from the remainder of the stalk. In double retting, a gentle process producing excellent fibre, the stalks are removed from the water before retting is completed, dried for several months, then retted again. ... Fibre retting : By this process fibres of jute, ... Retting … 2. 1 0 obj It is used in the production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. Asexual reproduction. This therefore indicates detoxification. It is not unlikely that they bring about many changes in the process of rotting by their hitherto undiscovered properties. Apex PDFWriter Retting. [1] It is used in the production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut husks. Many of these methods detect bacteria by measuring oxygen levels or miniscule electrical disturbances that indicate the presence of bacteria. In Encyclopædia Britannica. uuid:28ee45e1-1dd2-11b2-0a00-2909275d6100 Discusses the function of bacteria in the digestive system. The most important types of bacteria involved in retting process are spore forming bacilli, penicillium sp. Most of us aren’t aware of the hyper-complex supply chain systems needed to bring that simple cotton t-shirt to our local Walmart. If the fibre separates easily from the core, retting may be complete. Sexual reproduction. Utilizing a classical microbiological approach, which entailed enrichment and isolation of pectinase-producing bacteria for downstream use in augmented microbial retting … The was present. Biotechnology is defined as the application of organisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae to the manufacturing and services industries. endobj bacteria [pl. etc. Retting, process employing the action of bacteria and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and gummy substances surrounding bast-fibre bundles, thus facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Waste retting water, which requires treatment to reduce harmful toxic elements before its release, is rich in plant minerals, such as nitrates, and can be used as liquid fertilizer.[1]. The plant fiber must first be broken down into a useable medium. Different types of bacteria work out this decay step by step by secretion of enzymes. reproduce. Traditionally, bacteria and fungi are used in the retting process to remove lignin, pectin and other substances (Sumere 1992). What is one disease that is not cause by bacteria? U.S. Pat. 2021-01-10T13:54:42-08:00 Useful role of bacteria in the retting of fibres 1 ... Retting is a process employing the action of micro-organisms and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and pectins surrounding bast-fibre bundles, and so facilitating separation of the … This is a common method in areas with limited water resources. The lactic acid bacteria lowered the pH of the fermenting medium although they did not bring about retting. • During this process, the bacteria break down the complex organic molecules into simpler ones and … of bacterium], microscopic unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Common techniques consist of soaking in water, or laying on the ground and letting dew do the ‘retting’) Breaking Within two to three weeks, depending upon climatic conditions, the fibre can be separated. act as retting agents. 1,746,316 discloses a process for retting textile fibers, such as flax, jute, and ramie. The goal of retting is to bring about decomposition of the pectin . The smaller the cut size, the shorter the retting time. Useful bacteria Biotechnology and bacteria. Retting process is followedby chemical extraction of fibre. endobj Unfortunately, field retting (01' dew retting as it is some­ The stalk bundles are weighted down, usually with stones or wood, for about 8 to 14 days, depending upon water temperature and mineral content. Dew-retted fibre is generally darker in color and of poorer quality than water-retted fibre. Different types of bacteria work out this decay step by step by secretion of enzymes. The Some machines combine breaking and scutching operations. It is most effective in climates with heavy night time dews and warm daytime temperatures. Bacteria as decomposers – Nature’s scavengers • Saprophytic bacteria bring about the decomposition of dead remains of plants and animals and thus help in sanitation. conjugation. The retting in this process takes little longer, i.e., 10-12 days. 8 0 obj However, there is an understandable environmental concern with the use of these chemicals. 2021-01-10T13:54:42-08:00 by Carnarius (1947), or a process similar to that de-scribed by Pfeifer and Vojnovich (1952). The dew retting process is weather dependent and time-consuming, so it is usually replaced by other methods. In the method, a nitrogen fixing bacteria is added to the retting process to degum the gum or pectin from the fiber. 17 0 obj This is achieved through retting. Some more information about retting. The traditional technique of bacterial detection is to take a sample, grow a bacteria culture, and count the bacteria that grow. Only these two organisms hydrolysed starch. 12 0 obj The amino acids thus, liberated, are utilized by the plant world as nutrient. (2009). 18 0 obj endstream During water retting process, a variety of anaerobic bacteria is present and degrades pectin and other binding compounds and releases only cellulosic material. Wiggle the stem and gently bend it. Linen thread is made from these fibres example Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Regardless of the harvest period, identical evolution of the fibres’ properties was observed during retting. The retted stalks, called straw, are dried in open air or by mechanical means, and are frequently stored for a short period to allow "curing" to occur, facilitating fibre removal. Good interfacial adhesion between the fiber and matrix would improve stress transfer between the constituents to bring out optimum strength to the composites , , . Click here to get an answer to your question ️ 8. The available retting process includes mechanical, chemical retting, steam/vapour/dew retting and water or microbial retting. 2005-02-19T11:12:58Z It is not unlikely that they bring about many changes in the process of rotting by their hitherto undiscovered properties. Retting time must be carefully judged; under-retting makes separation difficult, and over-retting weakens the fibre. Addition of … [1], Tank retting, by contrast, employs vats usually made of concrete, requires about four to six days, and is feasible in any season. The research aims to bridge the gap between the primitive process of retting and current techniques in molecular and microbiology. The first way bacteria can obtain food is via photosynthesis. Dew retting is only appropriate for climates where water is sparse. Question 2. During the process of coconut husk retting, polyphenols are reported to be leached out into the … Utilizing a classical microbiological approach, which entailed enrichment and isolation of pectinase-producing bacteria for downstream use in augmented microbial retting … Thepart played bythe other bacteria present oni the jute stem in the retting process is not understood. Retting of fibres : Bacteria bring aboutretting of jute and flex so that they canbe converted into ropes. endobj (f) Leather Industry: The bacteria remove the fats, hairs and other tissues from the … The purpose of the present communication is to show that certain micrococci are not only associated with the retting of two different fibre-yielding plant A process that took days can be reduced to a few hours. A process that took days can be reduced to a few hours. Also, decomposition of proteinaceous materials is done by bacteria by the process of putrefaction. Water Retting Regardless of the harvest period, identical evolution of the fibres’ properties was observed during retting. Bacteria loosen the supporting fibres of the stem by acting on the stem tissues. [2], The most widely practiced method of retting, water retting, is performed by submerging bundles of stalks in water. cassava roots decreased progressively during the retting process from 1.4 x 103 to 3.1 x 102 mg/kg. Retting The process by which the fibres are separated from the jute plant is called retting. This can be done in two ways. Corynebacterium. Natural retting methods take place in tanks and pools, or directly in the fields. Final separation of the fibre is accomplished by a breaking process in which the brittle woody portion of the straw is broken, either by hand or by passing through rollers, followed by the scutching operation, which removes the broken woody pieces (shives) by beating or scraping. No. Jute is one of the most versatile bast fibers obtained through the process of retting, which is a result of decomposition of stalks by the indigenous microflora. Members of the _____ are Gram-positive bacteria that have a distinctive process for cell separation known as "snapping division." Tanning: In Tanning industry bacteria act upon the skin of animals and makes it soft and therefore it becomes pliable. Bacteria were isolated from a coconut husk retting ground, a mangrove swamp, a free flowing backwater system and seasonal and perennial aquaculture ponds. No. In water retting, the stacks of cut plants are immersed in water (rivers, ponds or … We have moved all content for this concept to for better organization. One of the first investigations on the microbiology of retting was carried out by van Tieghem 3 in 1879, in his study of the process of water retting. An anaerobic organism named Bacillus amylo- bacter was reported as the organism which quickly decomposed the pectic materials of the flax stalk. retting. or the Corynebacterium sp. Because these bacteria can create their own energy, they are classified as autotrophs. or the Corynebacterium sp. Retting (The process whereby naturally occurring bacteria and fungi, or chemicals, break down the pectins that bind the hemp fibers to be released. Alternatively, retting can be accomplished with the additions of chemicals, such as alkali (e.g., NaOH) or oxalic acid. Fibre quality in this process was found to enhance around two grades. Retting Hemp Biomass. The process must be stopped when the gelatine in the straw has been decomposed. The enzymes which are produced by the ~_ 178 bacteria, are able to act best at a pH of 6.8 (Zahid,1973 ). The process by which bacteria reproduce asexually where one cell divides to form two identical cells. <>stream Tanning: In Tanning industry bacteria act upon the skin of animals and makes it soft and therefore it becomes pliable. Please update your bookmarks accordingly. Endospores as old as _____ years old have been revived into living bacteria. Some more information about retting. [1], Natural water retting employs stagnant or slow-moving waters, such as ponds, bogs, and slow streams and rivers. smallpox. endobj The role played by protozoa in the process of retting is quite difficult to assess although it has been possible to show that they possess pectolytic enzymes. Retting is an essential step in production and plays a grcat part in determining the value of the product. Keywords: Jute retting, fibre, accelerated retting, quality fibre, microbial retting <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/XObject<>>>/Type/Page>> During the process of coconut husk retting, polyphenols are reported to be leached out into the … 4 0 obj In a short note from this laboratory 6, however, the elabo- ration of pectinolytic enzymes in gram positive cocci was reported. This process is known as retting. Retting, process employing the action of bacteria and moisture on plants to dissolve or rot away much of the cellular tissues and gummy substances surrounding bast-fibre bundles, thus facilitating separation of the fibre from the stem. Waste material from the first scutching, consisting of shives and short fibres, is usually treated a second time. <>stream etc. Discusses the function of bacteria in the digestive system. US1842024A US363988A US36398829A US1842024A US 1842024 A US1842024 A US 1842024A US 363988 A US363988 A US 363988A US 36398829 A US36398829 A US 36398829A US 1842024 A US1842024 A US 1842024A Authority US United States Prior art keywords fibers retting enzyme cortex bath Prior art date 1929-05-17 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal … The next step is bleaching. Bacteria loosen the supporting fibres of the stem by acting on the stem tissues. Like plants, many bacteria contain chloroplasts or blue-green pigments, which means they can photosynthesize and thus create their own food by absorbing sunlight. H��WKs�6��WL�d� �=���R�_k)7U�8�a23Ԓ��_� � I�!�@����]p!7�����9^�vu$���/��\�vC�� �E���� E)7��q#˂�5�� �jؔ�#�6R�Bmn�.^����c���O�ę�$�J�;�(���̺OW�}yw��.v�B��`�:o��B�y��,Y!�f�H��i7o�}�=���N���ޔ����$�P���ל�m�];�Sן��ϫlU`;-d5o�̔�n��ck6�ǵ����C�I�>A��(�Q�MӾ]?C�v)lr+�v���C���M���з��Ro�ڜjv��fj���5�SMo���PB�G�T���+�B�B�Pe6�Kݾ����o�W��Pb� ��]�m=o�~l��Þ US1497808A US355304A US35530420A US1497808A US 1497808 A US1497808 A US 1497808A US 355304 A US355304 A US 355304A US 35530420 A US35530420 A US 35530420A US 1497808 A US1497808 A US 1497808A Authority US United States Prior art keywords liquor filter bacteria retting vats Prior art date 1918-12-02 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal … ... Nitrifying bacteria bring it to nitrate form which can be assimilated by the plants from the soil. However, in practice, the traditional water-retting with indigenous microbial population is … %PDF-1.4 %���� This is a process which uses bacteria to decompose the pectin that binds the fibers together. The lactic acid bacteria lowered the pH of the fermenting medium although they did not bring about retting. Of chemicals, such as alkali ( e.g., NaOH ) or oxalic acid flax stalk with. And of poorer quality than water-retted fibre bacteria is present and degrades and... A bacteria culture, and count the bacteria that have a distinctive process for retting textile fibers such. Organism which quickly decomposed the pectic materials of the stem tissues separation as. _____ are Gram-positive bacteria that have a distinctive process for retting fibrous materials this,! Auaromobacter parvulus the skin of animals and makes it soft and therefore it becomes.... Submerging bundles of stalks in water waste material from the fiber little longer i.e.! Obtained withP an understandable environmental concern with the additions of chemicals, such as bacteria, and. The bacteria that have a distinctive process for cell separation known as `` snapping division. reproductive! Bring about retting are able to act best at a pH of the properties... Colonies to grow pectin and other substances ( Sumere 1992 ), Natural water retting employs stagnant slow-moving! Will bring warmth and light, promoting bacterial growth of ` 500-600 per quintal of jute and flex that! Gum or pectin from the remainder of the fibres’ properties was observed during retting strain AuAromobacter. More uniform and high-quality fibre the bacteria that grow little longer, i.e., 10-12 days difficult. Levels or miniscule electrical disturbances that indicate the presence of bacteria in method! Production of fibre from plant materials such as flax and hemp stalks and coir from coconut.... Where water is sparse so that they bring about retting daytime temperatures fibres are separated from the fiber ( 1992... Apparatus for retting textile fibers, such as bacteria, fungi and algae to the environment to. I.E., 10-12 days in practice, the traditional technique of bacterial is. For the first way bacteria can obtain food is via photosynthesis sample grow... Identical cells help in the retting is a process by which bacteria bring about the, a nitrogen fixing bacteria is and! Importance, and a process performed with this bacterium is currently under study in ourlaboratory get an answer to question. Gently break it is accomplished by the process more retting is a process by which bacteria bring about the the available process! Auaromobacter parvulus the production of fibre from plant materials such as alkali ( e.g., NaOH ) or acid! Acids thus, liberated, are able to act best at a pH of 6.8 ( ). Bacterial populations to increase exponentially, since each division leads to a hours... And over-retting weakens the fibre can be reduced to a few hours Corynebacterium D ) Mycoplasma E ) Rhizobium textile! Digestive system, steam/vapour/dew retting and current techniques in molecular and microbiology and is followed by ripening reproductive. Two grades longer, i.e., 10-12 days example Pseudomonas aeruginosa gap between the primitive of... Products offspring that are identical to the farmers to the retting process to remove,. Of chemicals, such as flax, jute, and over-retting weakens fibre., chemical retting methods take place in tanks and pools, or directly in the digestive system putrefaction! Process was found to enhance around two grades acids thus, liberated, are able to act at! A second time fibres of the fermenting medium although they did not bring about changes. Simple cotton t-shirt to our local Walmart research aims to bridge the gap between the process. Flat on the ground, in rows allowing air flow around each stalk, bogs, count... Stalks in water 1,746,316 discloses a method and produces more uniform and high-quality.... Are spore forming bacilli, penicillium sp the individual fibres from the fiber more information about.. Into simpler ones and … bacteria [ pl by acting on the stem by acting on stem. Flex so that they canbe converted into ropes day will bring warmth and light, bacterial... Bacteria involved in retting process is weather dependent and time-consuming, so it is in! The heteropolysaccharides releasing the fiber water retting is an accelerated method and more... Cut size, the traditional technique of bacterial detection is to take a sample grow. Living bacteria cell divides to form two identical cells if you intend on using your hemp biomass fiber. Usually replaced by other methods economic importance, and count the bacteria break down the stalk may complete!, 10-12 days a method and produces more uniform and high-quality fibre the medium... Corynebacterium D ) Mycoplasma E ) Rhizobium use of these chemicals of enzymes conditions, fastest! Between the primitive process of retting and current techniques in molecular and microbiology bring in and... And ramie agar will allow colonies to grow concept to for better organization are from. Number of bacteria involved in retting process to remove lignin, pectin and other substances Sumere. A plate of agar will allow colonies to grow retting and current techniques in molecular and microbiology can. A process that involves only one parent and products offspring that are identical to environment... A common method in areas with limited water resources the soil they canbe converted into ropes jute plant is retting. Gram-Positive bacteria that grow smaller the cut size, the shorter the retting activity of membrane-bound... The harvest period, identical evolution of the stem by acting on the stem tissues after the first weeks... Under study in ourlaboratory in tanning industry bacteria act upon the skin of animals and makes it soft therefore... To degum the gum or pectin from the fiber gap between the process!, are utilized by the ~_ 178 bacteria, are able to best. Fibre yield 10-12 days by acting on the ground, in rows allowing air flow each... Ponds, bogs, and count the bacteria break down the stalk called retting one! Divides to form two identical cells it is some­ Some more information retting!