They are a very serious pest of a wide variety of fruit and vegetables and winegrapes are a host. Within its range, it is one of the most important pests with which pome and stone fruit growers have to contend, and at times it has been a very destructive pest of citrus. Despite this pressure, the pest has historically been absent from the Yarra Valley region, allowing fruit and vegetable production to thrive without intervention from expensive and intensive QFF management techniques. QFF has the potential to infest a wide range of horticultural crops, garden plants, native plants and weeds. Bactrocera tryoni appears to be almost as destructive to fruit production in its Australian range as the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalisHendel, is in countries where it appears. 1960. Adults feed primarily upon juices of host plants, nectar, and honeydew secreted by various kinds of insects. Grow fruits and vegetables that are non-hosts of Queensland fruit fly. A list of host fruit and fruiting vegetables which are vulnerable to infestation by Queensland Fruit Fly (QFF). A survey of travellers carrying host fruit of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), into a fruit fly free area in 1998/99 following road signposting of penalties for infringements. State Government figures show 2898 fines were issued to people bringing ‘host material’ in to SA, as 3.8 tonnes of fruit and vegetables were seized at Yamba. JOSH BYRNE: There are over 200 species of Fruit Fly in Australia. Cooperative Economic Insect Report 7: 1-687. Queensland Fruit Fly is a very serious pest of great economic significance because of the damage caused to the fruit industry. Adult Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). Unlike several of the other most important fruit fly pests, B. tryoni does not breed continuously but passes the winter in the adult stage. Bactrocera tryoni appears to be almost as destructive to fruit production in its Australian range as the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, is in countries where it appears. The Queensland Fruit Fly, like many unwelcome guests, can be hard to budge. Head to the right. There has been a confirmed detection of Queensland fruit fly (Qfly) in Coolbellup, located south of Perth. The maggots (larvae) hatch and the fruit is destroyed by the feeding maggots and by associated fruit decay. The main way that Queensland fruit fly spreads to new areas is by being carried in infested host fruit and vegetables. All fruit fly host material, domestic and for export, is subject to the movement controls set out in the Controlled Area Notice. Figure 2. The adult female is approximately 6 mm long, has a wing expanse of 10 to 12 mm, and has mostly transparent wings marked with brown. The export restrictions have been largely removed with some operated for a specific destination pending confirmation of activities. Attractants. In the last few years, QFF has breached the quarantine efforts of Victorian irrigated fruit production regions of the Goulburn Murray Valley and Sunraysia. Note: This list is current as of the date of issue. Forewarned is forearmed: Queensland fruit flies detect olfactory cues from predators and respond with … CAB International. Females often oviposit in punctures made by other fruit flies such as those of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), with the result that many eggs often occur in a single cavity. Anonymous. 1960. The fly is brown marked with yellow. Fruit flies (Tephritidae). Biosecurity. Replacing fruit fly host fruit trees with ornamental trees and shrubs is an alternative control strategy. On the thorax a broad creamy, often pale, dorsal band runs down the scutellum, and there is a well-defined narrow pale yellow stripe on each side. Photograph by James Niland. fruit fly outbreak, refer pir.sa.gov.au/fruitfly. It is now widespread in New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Pitcairn Islands. B. tyroni is native to subtropical coastal Queensland and northern New South Wales. Adult females live many months, and four or five overlapping generations may develop annually. They are active during the day, but mate at night. 1950, January 30. Wild hosts include passionflower, Passiflora spp., and Eugenia spp. An eradication program is underway, and a Quarantine Area has been established around the suburb of Coolbellup and parts of Bibra Lake, Hamilton Hill, Kardinya, North Lake and Samson. We’re here to raise community awareness and increase knowledge of integrated management measures that are imperative in protecting the region. In warmer regions they might have already completed a full life cycle or more, while in cooler areas they might only just be becoming active.. At this time of year adult flies are feeding, breeding, searching for suitable hosts, and laying eggs in suitable host crops. You’ll need to implement a combination of methods and keep your backyard clean through a sanitation routine. The Queensland Fruit Fly (QFF), native to Australia (our closest neighbour), is considered to be the greatest threat and has the most market impacts. This species lays eggs in a wide variety of unripe fruit hosts, causing them to rot prior to ripening. However, only a few are listed by Agriculture Victoria: choka, coffee berries, date, dragon fruit. Eggs hatch in two to three days under favorable weather conditions. Christenson LD, Foote RH. The spread of Queensland fruit fly in the egg or larva form is limited by the combination of: • no movement of untreated host produce from properties in the Infected Area • no movement of any host produce out of the Control Area • treatments undertaken as part of the Queensland fruit fly response After 2-6 weeks under Tasmanian conditions, Leblanc L, Vueti E … Fruit flies of economic significance: Their identification and bionomics. This is a matter of very great concern. Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. implement other measures under the Biosecurity Act 1993 as necessary to eradicate Queensland fruit fly. Queensland Fruit fly (. Queensland fruit fly has also been recorded from 60 wild hosts, belonging to the following families: Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Celastraceae, Combretaceae, Cunoniaceae, Davidsoniaceae, Ebenaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Naucleaceae, Oleaceae, Passifloraceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Siphonodontaceae, … 2000): Anacardium occidentale (cashew) Annona atemoya (atemoya) Annona glabra (pond apple) Annona muricata (soursop) Annona reticula (bullock’s heart) Averrhoa carambola (carambola) Capsicum annuum (capsicum) Capsicum annuum (chilli) Carica papaya (papaya) Casimiroa edulis (white sapote) Chryosphyllum cainito (star apple) Occasional flies are trapped in the Austral and Society Islands in the Pacific. Adult female +-9-10 mm Adult female +-6 mm Jack Kelly Clark USDA, Survey and Detection Operations, Plant Pest Control Division, Agricultural Research Service. Pupal development requires from a week in summer to a month or more in cooler weather. In Australia, the Queensland fruit fly inhabits parts of Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales and the eastern corner of Victoria, with outbreaks in South Australia. Queensland fruit flies can attack a wide range of fruit, fruiting vegetables and native fruiting plants. CSIRO (September 2004.) Manual of Foreign Plant Pest for Fruit Flies, Part 3, p. 167-246. Similarly, the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tyroni) is responsible for more than $28.5 million in damage to Australian fruit crops a year. Larva of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). All Queensland fruit fly host material destined for export and travelling through an ERZ had to be contained in an insect-proofed environment and some additional documentation provided. 601 pp. Dacus tryoni (Froggatt) It was twice detected on Easter Island, but eradicated (White and Elson-Harris 1994, GISD 2011). The tribe Dacini (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major clade within the true fruit flies, containing 932 species in four genera (Vargas et al. Chaetodacus tryoni (Froggatt) B. tyroni are responsible for an estimated $28.5 million a year in damage to Australian crops and are the most costly horticu A heavy outbreak of B. tryoni in New South Wales during 1940-41 resulted in the rejection of 5–25% of citrus at harvest. Pupation normally occurs in the soil. 1994. The ensuing larval development may be completed in as little as five days. As many as 40 larvae have been found in one peach, and as many as 67 adults have been reared from one apple. Dacus ferrugineus tryoni (Froggatt) Males attracted to cue lure (White and Elson-Harris 1994). It is not established in the United States, but the extensive damage caused by the larvae of this fly in areas similar to Florida indicates that this species could become a serious pest of pome and stone fruit crops, and possibly of citrus, if it were to become established in Florida. Mango (some resistance to Mediterranean fruit fly, but prime Queensland fruit fly host) Kiwi fruit* Nashi Pears (sometimes affected)* Mulberry (sometimes affected)* Source: Adapted from Horticultural Policy Council (1991), The impact of fruit flies on Australian horticulture. More information: Vivek Kempraj et al. Christenson LD, Foote RH. Adults may live a year or more. (Myrtaceae). Queensland fruit fly is a devastating pest to the horticulture industry costing millions of dollars in damage every year. Hosts: Over 400 host plants for oriental fruit fly have been listed, including most types of commercial fruits such as citrus, mango, peach, plum, apple, ... Queensland fruit fly. By summer (December to February) fruit flies are likley to be at their most active. Control for each season. Any incursion can severely impact where we sell our fruit. Biology of fruit flies. Tephritis tryoni Froggatt. B. tyroni lay their eggs in fruit. Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). Wild hosts include passionflower, Passiflora spp., and Eugenia spp. the female. Greater knowledge and understanding of fruit and vegetable host plants and vigilant management of Queensland fruit fly will result in a more secure horticultural industry. Major hosts (Hancock et al. A heavy outbreak of B. tryoniin New South Wales durin… The adult flies congregate on foliage and fruit to feed on bacterial colonies and later to mate. The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), occurs in climates ranging from temperate to tropical. 1957. Insects not known to occur in the United States. The high risk period for fruit flies is September to June. The larvae then hatch and proceed to consume the fruit, causing the fruit to decay and drop prematurely. More than 100 species of fruits and vegetables have been recorded as hosts of B. tryoni, including: Bananas are said to be attacked only when overripe, and other fruits, such as grapes, are attacked only in peak years. Controlling Queensland fruit fly in home gardens, Action on Queensland fruit fly in regional Victoria, Queensland fruit fly grants for regional Victoria, Declared Queensland fruit fly outbreak zones in Victoria, Ongoing research into Queensland fruit fly control, Controlling Queensland fruit fly on orchards and farms, Movement of Queensland fruit fly outbreak affected host produce, Domestic trade of Queensland fruit fly host produce. 1-75. Figure 1. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. Josh Byrne. Immature stages are similar in appearance to those of other Bactrocera. In 1989, B. tryoni became established in Perth, Western Australia, but an eradication campaign using baits, male lures and sterile insect techniques eradicated it (White and Elson-Harris 1994, CSIRO 2004, GISD 2011). The total life cycle requires two to three weeks in summer and up to two months in the fall. Queensland fruit fly or Qfly (Bactrocera tryoni) is one of the most damaging pests of fruit and vegetables in Australia. Annual Review of Entomology 5: 171–192. White IM, Elson-Harris MM. (Myrtaceae). Figure 3. Fruit flies are the kiwifruit industry's most unwanted biosecurity threat. The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), occurs in climates ranging from temperate to tropical. Selected References. The Bendigo region has also experienced increased urban QFF pressure and occasional outbreaks have occurred in the inner Melbourne area. Strumeta tryoni (Froggatt) The humeri, or shoulders, are pale yellow, also. Adult females, after passing through a two-week pre-oviposition stage following emergence from the pupae, deposit eggs in groups, up to seven eggs per group, in fruit punctures. An ERZ is a defined zone from which fruit fly host material Oxon, UK. 2015, Doorenweerd et al. Within its range, it is one of the most important pests with which pome and stone fruit growers have to contend, and at times it has been a very destructive pest of citrus. Queensland fruit fly poses a serious threat to the Goulburn Murray Valley region’s horticulture industry, along with domestic and international trade opportunities. Annual Review of Entomology 5: 171-192. Economic losses are estimated at $300 million which includes control and loss of production, postharvest treatments, on‐going surveillance for area freedom and loss or limit to domestic and international markets. Queensland Fruit Fly (Bactrocera tryoni)Queensland Fruit Fly was found in metropolitan Melbourne in January 2008. Males attracted to cue lure (White and Elson-Harris 1994). A few flies were trapped in New Guinea but it is unlikely to be established there. Fruit that requires certification must be treated for QFF. Arabic (PDF - 298.0 KB) Arabic (WORD - 782.3 KB) Chinese (PDF - 480.0 KB) Chinese (WORD - 780.1 KB) Dari (PDF - 320.9 KB) Dari (WORD - 783.8 KB) Greek (PDF - 377.2 KB) Greek (WORD - 782.4 KB) Italian (PDF - 289.6 KB) Italian (WORD - 780.0 KB) Host Plant Check ListHost Plant Check List Queensland fruit flies lay eggs in maturing and ripe fruit on trees and sometimes in fallen fruit. Member species occur widely in Asia, Australia and the Pacific Islands. Adult female Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt). The abdomen is constricted at the base, flared in the middle, and broadly rounded at the tip, not counting the ovipositor of The Queensland fruit fly is a species of fly in the family Tephritidae in the insect order Diptera. Qfly is considered a serious horticultural pest because it is highly invasive, infesting more than 300 species of cultivated fruits and vegetables. The good news is that only 2 of them, the Queensland Fly on the East Coast and the Mediterranean Fly … Biology of fruit flies. The distribution and host plants of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Australia., Queensland, Department of Primary Industries, Information Series Q199067. Oakley RG. QUEENSLAND FRUIT FLY Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) are native to subtropical coastal Queensland and northern New South Wales and are commonly found in eastern Australia. This essentially means removing potential hosts (ie picking up and destroying fallen fruit) to break the fruit fly cycle. 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