Reference this. In recent years, the Queensland Police Service (QPS) and Queensland courts have sought to rely on a range of 'diversionary' practices such as youth justice conferencing and cautioning as a response to the alarmingly high rates of over- representation of Indigenous youth in Queensland's criminal justice system. Hartney, C. (2006) US Rates of Incarceration : A Global Perspective. The growth of ethnic minorities was not widely accepted and the resistance towards them was shown through racism and violence. Aboriginal over-representation in the justice system The majority of Aboriginal people will never offend nor become involved in the Victorian criminal justice system. Canada’s national disgrace: Aboriginal and the justice system. This helps to ensure justice as well as confidence of ethnic minorities in the legal system. These included objectivity and reliability which are positivist and quantitative constructs (Seale, 2004). Economic inequality (Marx), but also social and cultural inequality (differences in social and cultural capital – Bourdieu), produce higher risk groups. BAME youth continue to be disproportionately targeted by police’s wide-ranging stop and search powers. 3.21The over-representation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in prison has increased fr… Through this an individual’s self-mage and social identity are seen as being more important (Tajfel’s social identity theory). We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. In 2009 Black people made up 2.7% of the population aged 10 and above but represented 8.0% of those arrested in England and wales, while Asians made up of 5.6% of the population aged 10 and above and represented 5.6% of those arrested in England and wales (Race and the CJS, 2010). Ethnic minorities are also more likely to be the victims of crimes. It talks about the importance of a positive self-image to the individual, and how they feel their social identity is enhanced by categorising people into groups, in and out cast groups. Indigenous people are overrepresented in the Canadian criminal justice system as both victims/survivors 8 and accused/convicted persons. – Meant that topics to be addressed in the questionnaires would be sensitive and/or embarrassing to some, it was, therefore, easier to be addressed through an anonymous questionnaire (Babbie, 2010). They are less likely to be given unconditional bail, and more likely to be remanded in custody than white offenders. proposed ‘justice reinvestment’ as a possible solution to the over representation of Indigenous people in the criminal justice system. To ensure credibility of this research, standardised instruments were used because they can be assessed in a direct way. Risk factors, however, vary according to the different criminal justice systems in different countries. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! The questionnaires were conducted on a voluntary basis and respondents self-selected themselves to participate. Aboriginal over-representation in the criminal justice system: A tale of nine cities. Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice; The over-representation of indigenous people in custody in Australia The over-representation of indigenous ... Offenders, Statistics, Courts, Corrections, Trends, Criminal justice system, Comparisons, Victims. Nordic countries), the conservative/ christian democratic︎ regime – decommodification within existing hierarchical structures: family, community, church, protective but not egalitarian (e.g. The estimates about imprisonment also seemed to be related to the leniency of the sentences the offenders received. After volunteers had shown interest on approach, they were briefed on the purpose of the research, each volunteer was then informed that they could stop doing the questionnaire at any time and that the questionnaire would remain anonymous and they were reassured that their data would not be used against them, that their information would not be handed to third parties and would only be seen by an examiner. Germany, France), and the liberal︎ welfare regime – residual protection from market, safety net (e.g. Thus, the crucial intersectional approach (Crenshaw, 1990), because it is not men or black people that are overrepresented, but young black men from lower social classes (intersection of race, gender, age and … This shows that the more judges were seen as being out of touch with society, the more they were seen as doing a poor job, therefore, giving lenient sentences to ethnic minorities. Australian crime: facts & figures 2013. It will also look at the nature and extent of the variation in sentencing -if any at all- what might cause the variation and any available solution strategies. One also ought to look at the definition of crime catered by the elite which act as cultural hegemons (Gramsci). The least popular options included compensation (18 per cent), conditional charge (15 per cent) and electronic tagging (20 per cent) (see appendix 8). Unequal reporting then further widens the dichotomy between real crime location and targeted areas : “In a second experiment, Isaac and Lum hypothesised that sending police to neighbourhoods chosen by the algorithm would lead to a jump in reported crime by 20%” (Business Insider, 2016). The largest share of ethnic minorities was those who classified themselves as black or Indian (Gabbidon, 2010). Crenshaw (1991). There have been disputes to have this taken out of legislation for it is argued that those in law enforcement who have the power to strip an individual of their freedom and liberty should act in respect of racial origins of the defendant (Michael, 1989). In the questionnaires conducted, race was used in terms of being a system in which categories are created for humans based on their ethnic background’ (spalek, 2008). It is apparent that there are also variations in the overrepresentation of different groups within the ethnic minority category and also between gender, patterns and levels of offending also vary significantly (Race and the CJS, 2010). Just over half thought that the sentences were too lenient (59 per cent) to some extent and just below half of the respondents (41 per cent) thought that the sentences were lenient enough. There are indications of a degree of over-representation related solely to ethnicity, rather than any other expected factor, at key points in the criminal justice system. They looked at the decision-making process of over 3,000 defendants, from this they discovered that over 50% of the black defendants were unemployed, this being more than double that of white or Asian defendants was seen as influencing the decision (Brown and Hullin, 1992). Overrepresentation in criminal justice systems, computer generated “predictive policing,”, Globalisation and State Sovereignty: A Mixed Bag, Copyright © 2015 London School of Economics. The powers are not totally unfettered; the most commonly used powers require ‘reasonable grounds’ for suspicion, although this is somewhat of a moveable feast. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs. ... that bias operates within the criminal justice system, such that any suspected or actual offending by … It was seen in the British crime survey 2010-11 that the risk of being a victim of crime was higher for all ethnic minorities than white groups (Race and the CJS, 2010). That’s why I have asked David Lammy MP to lead a review of the over-representation of defendants from black and ethnic minority backgrounds in the criminal justice system. 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